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Structure of Atom | Introduction of Quantum Physics

 Structure of Atom | Introduction of Quantum Physics

Atom is a Greek word which signifies the meaning - "unbreakable." The Greeks accepted that matter can be separated into extremely little undetectable particles called atom. Philosophers, for example, Democritus and John Dalton set forward the idea of the molecule. Democritus clarified the idea of physical nature of matter. He additionally recommended that all substances are comprised of matter. He expressed atom are continually moving, undetectable, microscopic particles that are distinctive fit as a fiddle, size, temperature and can't be decimated. 

structure of atom
structure of atom

An atom is the smallest part of matter that holds all chemical properties of that matter. Combination of atoms form matter like solids, gases, or liquids. For example, A solid matter, Copper is formed by joining many atom of copper (Cu) . If we break a sheet of copper again and again , finally we get a smallest portion of that copper sheet. After breaking it, we could not tell it as copper. That smallest portion is known as atom of the copper.
Now, we will learn about the structure of an atom

structure of atom
structure of atom

 In the above figure, you will see generally atom has two main parts.
        1. Nucleus Part( Central Part)
        2. Outside part of nucleus

Nucleus is the central part of atom. All mass of atom are centralized here. It consists of two kind of particle. One is proton and another is neutron. Proton is positive charged particle. However, Neutron is charge less particle. A strong nucleus force is acting on those particle.
In the outside part of nucleus, you will observe one kind of particles who are revolving around the nucleus. These particles are negatively charged. Name of those particles is Electron. They are rotating around the nucleus due to strong electric force of nucleus.
   Thus, You can see there are three main particles present in atom. They are - 1. Electron, 2. Proton and 3. Neutron.

                                                atomic structure chemistry


 Researchers have known since the late nineteenth century that the electron has a negative electric charge. The estimation of this charge was first estimated by the American physicist Robert Millikan somewhere in the range of 1909 and 1910. In Millikan's oil-drop explore, he suspended modest oil drops in a chamber containing an oil fog. By estimating the pace of fall of the oil drops, he had the option to decide their weight. Oil drops that had an electric charge (gained, for instance, by grinding when traveling through the air) could then be backed off or halted by applying an electric power. By contrasting applied electric power and changes moving, Millikan had the option to decide the electric charge on each drop. After he had estimated numerous drops, he found that the charges on every one of them were basic products of a solitary number. This essential unit of charge was the charge on the electron, and the various charges on the oil drops related to those having 2, 3, 4,… additional electrons on them. The charge on the electron is presently acknowledged to be 1.602176565 × 10−19 coulomb. For this work Millikan was granted the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923.

                                                  atomic structure chemistry notes


The charge on the proton is equal in magnitude to that on the electron but opposite in nature, i.e, the proton has a positive charge. Because of attraction of opposite electric charges, there is an attractive force present between electrons and protons. This force cause the rotation of electron in orbit around the nucleus, something like that gravity helps to rotate Earth in orbit around the Sun.
                                                                            quantum physics


Neutron is the particle of atom that have no charge. They aren't positive charged like protons. They aren't negative charged like electrons. But don't think that they aren't important. Different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus form isotopes. Every part of an atom has great importance to the way the in which atom acts and behaves.

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